Low Level Laser Therapy References


PBM Therapy – also known as Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) – is the application of red/near-infrared light to tissue where there is degeneration or injury, to improve repair and reduce inflammation/pain. Click here for samples of published research

In the last 9 years eight systematic reviews have found in favour of LLLT

  • American College of Physicians Guidelines include a “strong recommendation” for Low-Level Laser Therapy as a non-invasive Treatments for Acute, Subacute & Chronic Low Back Pain. (2017) Click here
  • BMJ LLLT for chronic non-specific low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials found “moderate quality of evidence” and “clinically important benefits” in the short term. (2016) Click here
  • BMJ sports medicine journal, systematic review of surgical and conservative interventions for frozen shoulder found “strong evidence” for LLLT. (2010) Click here
  • The BMJ clinical evidence recommendations for tennis elbow 2011 now include LLLT Click here
  • American Physical Therapy Association guidelines recommend LLLT for Achilles tendonitis. (2010) Click here
  • Lancet systematic review: “LLLT reduces pain immediately after treatment in acute neck pain and up to 22 weeks after completion of treatment in patients with chronic neck pain”. (2009) Click here
  • World Health Organisation (Bone and Joint Task Force) for neck pain Low Level Laser Therapy “more effective than no treatment, sham, or alternative interventions” (2008) Click here

Further References:

1. Brosseau, L. et al. (2005). “Low level laser therapy (Classes I, II and III) for treating rheumatoid arthritis”.Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4)

2. Jamtvedt, G.; Dahm, K. T.; Christie, A.; Moe, R. H.; Haavardsholm, E.; Holm, I.; Hagen, K. B. (2007). “Physical Therapy Interventions for Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee: an Overview of Systematic Reviews”. Physical Therapy 88 (1): 123–136

3. Chow, RT.; Johnson, MI.; Lopes-Martins, RA.; Bjordal, JM. “Efficacy of low-level laser therapy in the management of neck pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo or active-treatment controlled trials.”.The Lancet, Volume 374, Issue 9705, page 1897 to 1908 5 December 2009

4. Tumilty, S.; Munn, J.; McDonough, S.; Hurley, D. A.; Basford, J. R.; Baxter, G. D. (2010). “Low Level Laser Treatment of Tendinopathy: A Systematic Review with Meta-analysis”. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery 28 (1): 3

5. Karu T. Photobiology of low-power laser effects. Health Phys. 1989;56:691–704. [PubMed]

6.  Huang YY, Chen AC, Carroll JD, et al. Biphasic dose response in low level light therapy. Dose Response.2009;7:358–383. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

7.  Karu T. Primary and secondary mechanisms of action of visible to near-IR radiation on cells. J Photochem Photobiol B. 1999;49:1–17. [PubMed]

8. Javad T. Hashmi, MD, Ying-Ying Huang, MD, […], and Michael R. Hamblin, PhD, Role of Low Level Laser Therapy in Neurorehabilitation. American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation PM&R. 2010 December; 2(12 Suppl 2): S292–S305.

9. Use of LLLT for Musculoskeletal Pain – Cotler, Hamblin et al

10. The Nuts and Bolts of LLLT – Ann Biomed Eng. 2012 February

11. Mechanisms of Low Level Laser Therapy – Michael Hamblin, Department of Dematology, Havard Medical School

12. Chow et al Lancet 2009.pdf

13. A NASA Discovery has Current Applications in Orthopaedics 14 August 2008

14. Light therapy tackles eye injuries-12July2002-NewScientist.pdf

Further publications may be found on

15. Photobiomodulation or low-level laser therapy – Hamblin

16. Prof Endre Mester – Father of PBM

17. The Use of Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) For MSK Pain – Hamblin et al

18. Editorial – Hamblin-2016-Journal_of_Biophotonics

19. Biological effects and medical applications of infrared radiation – Tsai and Hamblin – 2017 

20. Mechanisms and applications of the anti-inflammatory effects of PBM – Hamblin – 2017 

Toorak, Victoria, Melbourne

Laser Pain Therapy Australia
Tok H Centre
Level 1, 459 Toorak Road
Toorak, 3142
Ph: (03) 8529 2225
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Our Mission

We are dedicated to helping those in pain find relief that is safe, effective and affordable
We provide Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT), or Photobiomodulation Therapy (PBMT), which is proven to offer a safe, non-invasive and painless solution to both acute injuries and chronic pain.

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