Low Level Laser Therapy References


PBM Therapy – also known as Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) – is the application of red/near-infrared light to tissue where there is degeneration or injury, to improve repair and reduce inflammation/pain. Click here for samples of published research

Further References:

1. Brosseau, L. et al. (2005). “Low level laser therapy (Classes I, II and III) for treating rheumatoid arthritis”.Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4)

2. Jamtvedt, G.; Dahm, K. T.; Christie, A.; Moe, R. H.; Haavardsholm, E.; Holm, I.; Hagen, K. B. (2007). “Physical Therapy Interventions for Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee: an Overview of Systematic Reviews”. Physical Therapy 88 (1): 123–136

3. Chow, RT.; Johnson, MI.; Lopes-Martins, RA.; Bjordal, JM. “Efficacy of low-level laser therapy in the management of neck pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo or active-treatment controlled trials.”.The Lancet, Volume 374, Issue 9705, page 1897 to 1908 5 December 2009

4. Tumilty, S.; Munn, J.; McDonough, S.; Hurley, D. A.; Basford, J. R.; Baxter, G. D. (2010). “Low Level Laser Treatment of Tendinopathy: A Systematic Review with Meta-analysis”. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery 28 (1): 3

5. Karu T. Photobiology of low-power laser effects. Health Phys. 1989;56:691–704. [PubMed]

6.  Huang YY, Chen AC, Carroll JD, et al. Biphasic dose response in low level light therapy. Dose Response.2009;7:358–383. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

7.  Karu T. Primary and secondary mechanisms of action of visible to near-IR radiation on cells. J Photochem Photobiol B. 1999;49:1–17. [PubMed]

8. Javad T. Hashmi, MD, Ying-Ying Huang, MD, […], and Michael R. Hamblin, PhD, Role of Low Level Laser Therapy in Neurorehabilitation. American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation PM&R. 2010 December; 2(12 Suppl 2): S292–S305.

9. Harvard: Use of LLLT for Musculoskeletal Pain – Cotler, Hamblin et al

10. The Nuts and Bolts of LLLT – Ann Biomed Eng. 2012 February

11. Harvard:  Mechanisms of Low Level Laser Therapy – Michael Hamblin, Department of Dematology, Havard Medical School

12. Chow et al Lancet 2009.pdf

13. A NASA Discovery has Current Applications in Orthopaedics 14 August 2008

14. Light therapy tackles eye injuries-12July2002-NewScientist.pdf

15. Harvard: Photobiomodulation or low-level laser therapy – Hamblin J. Biophotonics 9, No. 11–12, 1122–1124 (2016)

16. Prof Endre Mester – Father of PBM

17. HarvardThe Use of Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) For MSK Pain – Hamblin et al MOJ Orthop Rheumatol 2015

18. Harvard: Editorial – Hamblin-2016-Journal_of_Biophotonics

19. Harvard: Biological effects and medical applications of infrared radiation – Tsai and Hamblin – 2017 

20. Harvard: Mechanisms and applications of the anti-inflammatory effects of PBM – Hamblin – 2017 

21. The Bone and Joint Decade 2000–2010 Task Force on Neck Pain – an initiative of the United Nations and the World Health Organization.

22. Noninvasive Treatments for Acute, Subacute, and Chronic Low Back Pain: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians

23. Effects of LLLT in MSK a Systematic Review European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine

24.  2018 – National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance for the UK NHS recommends LLLT for oral mucositisClick here
      2017 – UK NIHR funded RCT on the Clinical and Cost Effectiveness of Low Level Laser in the Management of Oral Mucositis in Head and Neck Cancer Irradiation, 10 NHS hospitals, 380 patients in progress. Click here
       2017 – Low Level Laser improves survival of head and neck cancer patients. Click here

25. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Board of Directors August 31, 2021

26. The Use of Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) For Musculoskeletal Pain. Cotler, H. B., Chow, R. T., Hamblin, M. R., & Carroll, J. (2015). MOJ Orthopedics & Rheumatology, 2(5), 00068.

Further publications may be found on:


South Yarra, Victoria
Suite 8, 200 Toorak Road
(Ground floor from William St)
South Yarra, Vic 3141
Ph: 03 8529 2225
Email us:

Map Location

Train: South Yarra Station, 100m, 1 minute walk
Tram: Route 58, stop  no. 127

Easy off-street free parking:
If driving you will find many free 1P and 2P spots on and around Toorak Rd near the clinic.

Our Mission

We are dedicated to helping our patients with the most technically advanced, proven and affordable medical therapies. Our treatment modalities offer evidence-based, safe, non-invasive and painless solutions to improve health, well-being and quality of life.


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